Ppk : Lesser known sibling of Cpk

**Ppk : Lesser known sibling of Cpk**

Cpk and Ppk are indices for measurement of process capability

while Cpk is measure of Potential process capability

i.e. how well your process can perform under best conditions

Ppk is indices of actual process performance

So if a process has a Cpk of 1.5 and Ppk of 0.67

it is evident that process is producing defectives .

How Cpk and Ppk are calculated

Cpk = minimum of (Cpu , Cpl) or minimum of (( USL-Mean)/3sigma , (Mean- LSL)/3 sigma))

The value of sigma is calculated from R bar chart

sigma = (R bar/d2)

R bar is the average range from R bar chart and d2 is a constant from empirical table

R bar is average of range of all the subbgroups

if range is small , so will be R bar and consequently sigma will be small

which translates to high value of Cpk .

Ppk = minimum of (Ppu , Ppl) or minimum of (( USL-Mean)/3s , (Mean- LSL)/3s))

Here sigma is replaced by s

āsā is overall standard deviation which is calculated across all the data .

If value of s is high , then value of Ppk will be low ,which spells disaster for process

For the proces to be in real staistical control

intra subgroup varition and inter subgroup variation has to be same

i.e. Cpk and Ppk are more or less same

At the end if the process is not in statistical control then Cpk,Ppk are pointless

The process has to be brought under statistical control

and easy way to do that is to look at your control chart